Quality starts at the source. We only purchase plants and nutrients from vetted producers around the world and carry out chemical tests to ensure that each component contains the desired quantities of active chemicals.
Our formula contains a combination of adaptogens and brain nutrients. Adaptogens are plant derived drugs with no side effects which exert a stress protective effect on the body, increasing its "state of non-specific resistance". Research shows that adaptogens reduce fatigue and increase the cognitive and physical capabilities of the individual.
Background: An adaptogen used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. It was listed in the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, China's oldest book on medicine. Between the 1950's and 1960's its properties were extensively studied in the USSR with the purpose of using it to increase stamina and resistance to stressful or harmful environments. The studies determined that this plant acts as an adaptogen, meaning that it is an innocuous substance with no side effects that increases the non-specific resistance of the body to conditions of stress. In fact, its effects were so advantageous that in 1966 it was adopted by the Soviet Space Program to be used by cosmonauts.
Benefits: Clinical studies suggest that E. senticosus acts as an overall cognitive enhancer, increasing performance in a wide variety of cognitive tests [1,2,3]. Studies have also shown that supplementation with this plant can reduce fatigue and increase physical as well as mental endurance [2,4,5]. Diferent studies also suggest that E. senticosus enhances night vision, improves color discrimination and prevents visual fatigue .
Background: An adaptogen native to Siberia and the north of China. It was used by Vikings as a tonic to improve stamina and vigor. R. rosea was also incorporated into Traditional Chinese Medicine to help the body deal with stress. During the 1940´s scientists in the USSR became increasingly interested in this plant and studied its adaptogenic properties alongside S. chinensis and E. senticosus.
Benefits: R. rosea has showed promising results in reducing fatigue and improving overall cognitive function as well as reaction time during prolonged or stressful tasks, thus positively impacting the ability of the individual performing such tasks [1,2,3]. When combined with S. chinensis and E. senticosus it has also shown potential attention and accuracy enhancing properties . Studies suggest that its use may also improve the overall sense of well being and it may be effective in reducing depression and anxiety [5,6]. These effects may be linked to its modulating effect on the levels of dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline, three important brain neurotransmitters, as well as the cortisol, a hormone that is commonly associated to stress.
Background: An adaptogen native to Australia and India which has formed a part of Ayurvedic medicine for 1400 years, where it has been used to sharpen intellect, improve nervous function and aid memory and learning.
Benefits: Numerous clinical studies have substantiated the nootropic effects of this plant on humans. In particular, they suggest that people who consume it will have enhanced recollection and concentration capabilities [1,2,3]. Studies suggest that Bacopa monnieri promotes interneuronal communication by increasing the growth of nerve endings, also called dendrites. B. monnieri also works as a potent natural neuroprotector. Its antioxidant properties protect the brain from oxidative stress, a common denominator to many neurodegenerative diseases. It is also hypothesized to have an acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect, i.e it prevents the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from being decomposed, thereby increasing its levels in the brain .
Background: Native to China, it is known as one of the oldest tree species that remain on Earth. An adaptogen, it has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for millennia to improve digestion, blood flow and help people recover from a variety of ailments. More recently Ginkgo biloba has received increased attention in Europe and the United States where it is commonly prescribed to increase cerebral blood flow and alleviate age-related cognitive impairments. G. biloba is among the most thoroughly researched plants in the world, thus many of its benefits have been systematically studied.
Benefits: Clinical studies conducted on the aging as well as young adults suggest that G. biloba has memory enhancing properties [1,2,3]. Besides improving memory, G. biloba has also shown a variety of cognitive enhancement properties including attention and information processing abilities [2,4]. Studies also suggest that G. biloba has neuroprotective effects through at least two mechanisms: by acting as a natural antioxidant, thus protecting cells from oxidative stress, and by enhancing blood flow around the brain, thus improving brain oxygenation and overall health [5,6].
Background: An adaptogen native to northeastern China and Korea. It has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for over 2000 years as a tonic to revitalize the individual, it was often referred to as The King of Herbs.
Benefits: P. ginseng has a high amount of natural compounds denominated ginsenosides. Ginsenosides have been shown to support a variety of processes involving the development of the nervous system. P. ginseng is also a natural source of substances called actoprotectors. Actoprotectors are regarded as a subclass of adaptogens which significantly increase physical and mental performance without increasing oxygen consumption. The main difference between actoprotectors and other mental stimulants such as caffeine is that actoprotectors do not increase oxygen consumption or heat production, thus improving physical conditions without taking the body to exhaustion [1,2]. Under a stressful circumstance, P. ginseng can improve the endocrine response of the body to the environment, thus allowing improved performance. In fact, it has been shown in repeated clinical studies that its consumption improves overall mood and aids with the treatment of depression and anxiety [3,4].
Background: An adaptogen native to China and Russia. It has been long used in Traditional Chinese Medicine where it was called Ban-Wuweizi, or the five flavored berry, given that it contains the five primary tastes. S. chinesis produced significant interest in the USSR after WWII when researchers discovered that it was being used by Nanai hunters in the Far East to reduce hunger, exhaustion and to improve night vision. After extensive research for the past 40 years, the benefits of S. chinensis have become widely known.
Benefits: The main bioactive components of this plant are called lignans. Lignans have shown potent antioxidant effects, which means that they prevent cell damage in the nervous system [1,2]. S. chinensis has also shown significant effects in enhancing cognitive performance and preventing fatigue in various clinical studies which included students, soldiers and Russian cosmonauts [3,4,5]. In particular, among the studies performed, S. chinensis showed it can increase attention in students, accuracy in telegraph operators and the overall working ability of sailors and pilots .
Background: A herb native to West Asia where it played an important role in Ayurvedic medicine. It was known as Brahmi and it was commonly used as a brain and nervous system tonic. C. asiatica was also commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, where it was referred to as 'the fountain of life', it was commonly used for its calming effect.
Benefits: Numerous clinical trials have showed that C. asiatica can improve mood and have anti-stress, anti-depressant and anxiolitic properties [1,2]. Studies on mice have shown that C. asiatica stimulates cellular response to oxidative stress and the production of anti-oxidant enzymes, thus exerting a neuroprotective effect on the nervous system . C. asiatica is hypothesized to stimulate neuronal growth in the brain by causing the release of a growth factor called Brain-derived Neutrophic Factor, this has been linked to its cognitive enhancing effects. In fact, clinical studies have shown that C. asiatica has a positive effect on alertness and memory on adults [4,5,6].
Background & Benefits: a compound which acts a bioavailable source of choline. Choline is used by the body in the formation of cells and in the synthesis of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in memory, mood, psychomotor response and overall nervous system function [1, 2]. Besides increasing acetylcholine levels in the brain, studies on rats suggest that Alpha-GPC may also increase the concentration of dopamine and serotonin, two important neurotransmitters, in the brain [3,4]. Human studies have also shown it has an anti-Alzheimer effect and decreases the rate of cognitive decline on the elderly .
Background & Benefits: It is one of the 8 B-vitamins. Thiamine is an essential component used by the body to metabolize food, turn carbohydrates into glucose and break down proteins and fats . This makes it vital in maintaining proper energy levels in the body. It also helps with the development of the protective tissue around nerve cells called myelin sheaths, as well as the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine . Thus, thiamine is vital for overall body energy and brain health.
Background & Benefits: It is one of the 8 B-vitamins. Humans don't produce folate naturally, hence it is necessary to get it from external sources. Folate is used by the body to make RNA, DNA and metabolize amino acids. It is also used in the formation of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, making essential for brain functioning [1,2].
Background & Benefits: It is a modified version of the aminoacid L-Carnitine that makes the compound more easily absorbed into the brain . It plays an important role in the metabolization of fats in the mitochondria, the process through which fat is transformed into energy for the body. Hence proper levels of this compound prevent physical and mental fatigue as well as cellular decay. It also promotes the formation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which plays a vital role in cognition and memory . Some studies suggest that this compound may have anti-depressant benefits and prevent age related cognitive decline [3,4].
Background & Benefits: It is a modified version of the amino acid tyrosine which allows for faster absorption by the body. It is the building block of the hormones dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine, which are released by the adrenal gland to help the body and the nervous system deal with stress . Studies show that high doses of Tyrosine preserve cognition under conditions of acute stress such as cold temperatures, high altitudes and lack of sleep. Studies also suggest that its ingestion improves memory and the sense of well being under stress conditions [2,3,4].
Background & Benefits: the 4 compounds listed above are phospholipids which participate in a variety of cellular processes in the the body. Phospholids are the building blocks of the cell membrane, this makes them essential in maintainig cell integrity by replacing damaged tissue and preventing cellular degeneration in the brain.
Phosphatidylcholine is a source of choline which plays a key role in the formation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine as well as learning, muscle control, verbal and visual memory, nerve function and liver function .
Phosphatidylserine makes up a large portion of the phospholipid content of the cells in the brain. It helps regulate neurotransmitter levels in the brain and is required for the formation of myelin sheaths which protect the nerves. Its consumptions also stimulates the release of acetylcholine, a vital neurotransmitter for learning and memory . Studies have found that supplementation with phosphatidylserine can help decrease age related cognitive decline and may help decrease the symptoms of ADHD .
Phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine are two phospholipids which play a key role in cell structure, in particular, they are integral parts of the structure brain and nervous tissue.